1st CarboEurope-IP Integrated Project Meeting
Spoleto, Italy, 19-22 January, 2004 - Presentations


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday





Workshop on QA/QC of flux measurements (Thomas Foken)

Workshop materials and final recommendations are found at the webpage.


CarboEurope-IP Meeting, Monday, 19 January 2004



Welcome and introduction by the Co-ordinator (Ernst-Detlef Schulze) <slides>

The CarboEurope-IP has deep roots in the past. Already in 1991, IGBP indicated the challenge: “Our knowledge of the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems is not developed to a sufficient degree to understand—much less predict - the consequences of climate change either on the systems themselves or on subsequent atmospheric interactions”. The CarboEurope project idea was born during in Orvieto, 24 June 1998 , where the major ingredients were identified. The CarboEurope Cluster operated from January 2000 to the end of 2003. The present CarboEurope-IP succeeds the cluster since January 1 st, 2004 .

Past international collaboration has been successful and scientifically exciting. Let´s continue in the same spirit!


The scientific challenge of CarboEurope-IP (Han Dolman) <slides>

The presentation highlighted the scientific background to the main challenges of CarboEurope-IP:

Key scientific challenges of each Component of the CarboEurope-IP were shown.


Statement of European Commission (Claus Brüning)

Congratulation to success of project and finished negotiations
FP5: 180 projects in area of climate change (250 M Euro), out of which 25 M Euro was CarboEurope Cluster
FP6: CarboEurope was again most successful project in first call (16 areas, 12 of which covered by Integrated Projects or Networks of Excellence).

From 10 th of February, 2004, Giovanni Angeletti will be the scientific officer for CarboEurope-IP.


Background and scientific approach to The scientific Components of CarboEurope-IP

Ecosystem Component (Riccardo Valentini)

Revised ecosystem component goal: “to provide the observational and analytical basis for assessing the contribution of terrestrial ecosystems and their components to the local, regional and continental European carbon budget and its geographical and temporal patterns”

The Component is organised around 17 clusters of flux tower sites. One of the key challenges for the first phase of the project is to determine with respect to what, and how the flux tower network can be optimized.

Ciais: Eastern Europe – are there bioclimatic differences in ecosystems?
Valentini/Schulze: yes, differences in vegetation types, air pollution,... – Siberian project needs to continue.

Turner: Are there no controlled ecosystem studies for model parametrization? Is hence the “prediction” limited to the present situation?
Schulze/Miglietta: There is a number of past and running manipulation experiments in Europe , but funding outside the project is required. One may think about new large-scale field manipulations in the future. For now, field perturbation patterns of network across Europe like forests with/without liming, set-aside lands in agriculture, could be used.


Atmosphere Component (Philippe Ciais) <slides>

Main issues

Main Objectives By means of

Link to US and Siberian and North Atlantic measurements !

Vesala: “definition of tall towers”
Ciais/Schulze “tower that probes out of surface layer, up to 500 m”, in Siberia , 250 m would be minimum.

Denning: actual US network is much less dense than shown by Philippe , US feels less advanced and less integrated than Europe . Map of fossil fuel emissions – temporal patterns important!
Ciais: Concerted Action will provide maps (10 km – 3 hourly for fossil fuels). Long-term goal: fossil fuel should become a module in atmo transport models like land surface

Valentini: Possible contribution of flux network: diurnal drawdown of CO2 – difference in concentrations better detectable than absolute numbers, and empirical calculations?

Schulze: Why do large-scale atmospheric inversions produce larger sink estimates than inventories and fluxes?
Ciais: The term “region” has to better match between Communities – match not yet achieved, lateral transport of C, uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions... – so far large differences in approaches, C fluxes included in various approaches, errors,…  


Regional Experiment (Han Dolman) <slides>

Les Landes region around Bordeaux , 200x200 km.

The Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) only works well as integrator of a region if

So far, mesoscale atmospheric models are bad at vertical entrainment from above, but some promising results have been achieved. Winter campaign in Netherlands shows that some of error in fossil fuel a priori estimate in winter was reduced. Main challenges:

2x2km grid is ambitious, (4-5km)² more realistic

Denning: Will flux estimates be made at daily timescales by one tall tower + daily flights?
Dolman: Two steps: 1) intensive campaign with high frequency flights to learn how to deal with variability. 2) one full year with data assimilation

Leuenberger: can hilltop stations replace tall towers?
Ciais: hilltop always difficult to distinguish local and large-scale effects.

Reichstein: Schmitgen data of Bordeaux region: spatial scaling with MODIS data brought results of ground ecosystem measurements and atmosphere measurements closer together.


Continental Integration (Martin Heimann)

Main goal: Spatial and temporal scales of data streams – how to bring them together Main question: carbon behaviour on long time scales up to centuries, at larger scales Objectives

Activities Top-down: Bottom-up:

So far, communities have not yet worked together – find common language!
Data assimilation – so far part of Camels project.
Land carbon inventories: Gridded map of forest age classes of Europe
Minor carbon flows: Link to Carbo-Ocean, which also covers European coastal seas

Data base

Critical organisational issues (more detailed workplan and work allocation needed)

  1. intra-component communication – different modelling communities
  2. inter-component communication: model-data syntheses (worked well in the past, with new structure disintegrated!)

Schulze: How many towers and atmospheric measurements do you need to quantify the European carbon balance?
Heimann: The question can be addressed within the planned framework.

Valentini: Eurogrid: decide how the co-ordinates fit in European continent, east-west extension...
Heimann: To be decided during kick-off meeting.

Denning: Similar problems in USA . Driving forces of C sink is management and land use history – how does this fit to monthly, weekly model optimisations if major background long-term driving forces are not considered? Have you tried to put C and N in slow succession models?
Heimann: Integration of N is planned in the future to address effects by stepwise approaches and other types of models. First optimise TEM with inventory data, then use physiological models based on the optimised TEMs. But so far, no system is existing yet.
Schulze: we are relatively good at the slow-in question, but bad at the fast-out part.


Education (Philippe Saugier)

Goal: To help European young people understand climate change research

How: When: 18 months. Who and what?
  1. Basic resources in English
  2. dissemination with multipliers (European and national organisations, including young people)
  3. exploitation during the following years
Role of CarboEurope scientists

Schulze: circulate list for input (e.g. contact persons, university tools in place, active interested ones,...)
Important activity because students and education in environmental science is breaking away!


Innovation (John Grace) <slides>



cf. Thursday morning


CarboEurope-IP Meeting, Tuesday, 20 January 2004


1st General Assembly

See separate Minutes. <file>


Afternoon Plenary  


Carbon cycling in European forests (John Grace) <slides>
Greenhouse gas budget of European croplands (Pete Smith) <slides>
First estimates of the greenhouse gas budget of European grasslands (Jean-François Soussana) <slides>
Regional carbon budgeting (Ronald Hutjes and Alex Vermeulen) <slides>
Inverse modeling of carbon fluxes at large scale (Peter Cox) <slides>
Ecosystem carbon inventories (Bernhard Schlamadinger) <slides>


CarboEurope-IP Meeting, Wednesday, 21 January 2004


Morning: Parallel sessions per Component


Afternoon Plenary

Summary of Component meetings
1 Ecosystems (Riccardo Valentini)
2 Atmosphere (Philippe Ciais)
3 Regional Experiment (Han Dolman)
4 Continental Integration (Martin Heimann)
SPECTRA Mission (Yvan Baillion)


CarboEurope-IP Meeting, Thursday, 22 January 2004


Morning Plenary

Inter-component communication

Facilitation by:


How to make innovation activity operational


Parallel sessions in smaller groups

  1. Radiation measurements (Anders Lindroth/John Grace)
  2. Data management group (Martin Heimann)
  3. Dissemination/education/training (Philippe Saugier)
  4. CO 2 concentration measurements on eddy flux towers (Bart Kruijt)
  5. Advection experiments (Marc Aubinet)
  6. Protocol for soil respiration measurements (Francesca Cotrufo)
  7. Grassland/cropland measurement protocol (Jean-Francois Soussana/Pete Smith)

Final plenary


Included in Minutes of 1st General Assembly <link>

Schedule of workshops <link>

Atmospheric view (Scott Denning)
Terrestrial Carbon Cycling: What, How, Why & Will? (Dennis Baldocchi)

SPECTRA Splinter Meeting

ESA SPECTRA mission - bridging the gap for understanding the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems (Yvan Baillion)


Friday 23 January 2004

1st Joint Meeting of Advisory Panel and Executive Board


updated by Yvonne Hofmann,