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Temporal and Spatial Resolution of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Europe

This report presents proposals of methods for the spatial and temporal disaggregation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. It takes into consideration the results of the workshop on this topic that was held in Stuttgart, Germany, on June, 26-27 2003 in the frame of the European Concerted Action CarboEurope GHG.
A lot of work in the field of spatial and temporal emission resolution has already been conducted for other trace gases, e.g. in the EUROTRAC subproject GENEMIS, or in the frame of the German Tropospheric Research Programme, but yet there has not been much work done in the spatial or temporal resolution of greenhouse gas emissions. The status quo of greenhouse gas emission resolution corresponds to the annual national communications of parties to the UNFCC. According to modeller specifications, any resolution better than annual and national would be helpful but the aim is to obtain hourly emission data on a 10 km * 10 km grid if possible.
In most cases, the disaggregation methodology developed for ‘classic’ air pollutants (NOx, NMVOC, SO2, CO etc.) can be applied for greenhouse gases as well because they depend on the same activities of emission sources. However, in some cases greenhouse gas emissions follow distinct time curves. Concerning agriculture, for example, studies about the temporal distribution of NH3 emissions have been conducted, but those time curves are not necessarily applicable for emissions of CH4 or CO2. In order to account for greenhouse gas budgets, the developed methodology needs to be improved and adapted to be applicable
to GHG emissions.
Adaptation is also necessary regarding classification of emission source groups. Within GENEMIS, emission sources were grouped with respect to CORINAIR “Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution”. National greenhouse gas emission inventories are in most cases based on the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines and emission sources are thus categorised pursuant to the IPCC Common Reporting Format (CRF) since 2000. Correlation between SNAP and CRF was established during the development of the Nomenclature For Reporting (NFR) by UNECE Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections and can be used to allocate greenhouse gas emissions to SNAP or NRF sectors.
Based on the approaches developed in the context of GENEMIS, methods of spatial and temporal disaggregation are proposed for emission source groups comprising sources with similar temporal activity:

The main focus in this report will be on temporal disaggregation, since the need for improvements in this field is much higher than the need to improve methods for spatial disaggregation, which are already well developed.
In this report, the major greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O of anthropogenic origin are considered. Biogenic emissions are covered by another CarboEurope GHG Workpackage. Concerning agriculture, this brought up the question of competence. The following arrangement was made: all emissions that occur before the application of manure or fertilizer on agricultural land are considered to be anthropogenic and are addressed in this report. Emissions from Agriculture were discussed in a separate group during the workshop and are addressed in a separate chapter in this report, too.

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updated by Yvonne Hofmann,