Activity 1.1 Eddy covariance flux network and data

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 1.1.1 Establishment of the CarboEurope-IP eddy covariance flux network: The current distribution of flux towers which are coming from past European projects and national programmes, as well as new implemented sites, which have been selected as CarboEurope Cluster network need to be harmonised in terms of methodologies, protocols of measurements and data sharing. This task has the goal of creating a comprehensive and highly standardised network of sites which will be the back-bone of the entire ecosystem component of the IP.

Task 1.1.2 Data on carbon, water and energy exchanges and other non CO2 trace gases: The eddy covariance network will provide a comprehensive data base of carbon, water and energy fluxes and associated variables based on high standardisation procedures. In selected sites, where these are relevant, other non-CO2 fluxes will be measured and collected in a data-base.

Task 1.1.3 Assessment of carbon budgets of the European landscape elements: Carbon budget estimates will be carried out by means of annual sums and gap filling with state-of-the-art methodologies and errors and uncertainties will be evaluated. Annual carbon budget data will be used to assess the variability and diversity of European landscape components.

Task 1.1.4 Contribution to develop the CarboEurope carbon observation system through optimisation of the flux network A comprehensive scientific analysis using multivariate statistical analysis and optimisation theory will be carried out to assess the current distribution of flux sites and to redesign the spatial distribution of sampling in terms of ecosystem, climate, soils and management regimes. A new European design of the flux network will be provided taken into account the modelling needs and the representativeness of ecosystems. This result could be used in the future for implementation of an operational carbon data observation system at European level.

Task 1.1.5 Establishment of data centre for ecosystem data. Data coming from the flux network will be sent every 6 months to a centralized data base, located at the University of Tuscia , Laboratory of Forest Ecology. The laboratory is connected to the Italian academic network (10 Gbit) at a bandwith of 4 Mbit and a dedicated server will be installed for this purpose. The Ecosystem data server (ECODB) will be a component of the distributed Central Database facility of the IP.

Task 1.1.6 Operation of data centre for ecosystem data. ECODB will include both flux and ecological and soil data as described in the list of variables to be measured.

Flux data will be subjected to quality checks and gap filling by means of the state-of-the-art in this matter (Aubinet et al. 2000, Papale and Valentini 2003). Gap filling parametrization will be adapted to the specific sites in collaboration with the PIs. Also ecological data will be subjected to scrutiny for consistency and rigorous application of the agreed methods of collection. Every 6 months data will be made available to the CarboEurope central facility and therefore to the integration component of the IP.


Activity 1.2 Quality control and improvement of eddy flux data

Objectives (5 yr plan, to be executed in the first three years)

Outline of work plan ( to be executed in the first three years)

Task 1.2.1 Footprint and quality assessment of main flux sites: Each of the Main Sites of the cluster flux network will be evaluated by means of quality checks on eddy covariance data as well as for the representativeness of the fluxes of the respective footprints. To this purpose each Main Site footprint will be evaluated on the basis of a georeferenced land use/cover digital map. This information will be provided to the flux database as additional information for modellers as well for further flux corrections and error analysis.

Task 1.2.2 Improvement of quality control procedures on eddy covariance data: New methodological components (planar fit rotation, ogive-test) as well as suitable quality control procedures will be developed. A high quality sensor set-up and associated methodical issues will be developed to investigate the energy balance closure as a control method for eddy covariance measurements. The methodologies will be developed at the Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen site of the University of Bayreuth (Fluxnet site) on a campaign basis, which has unique additional meteorological data. The new methodologies will be applied at all Main Sites in Task 1.2.1.

Task 1.2.3 Analysis of nocturnal fluxes and associated problems due to complex topographies: Accurate measurements of CO2 fluxes during night conditions will be performed. To this end, a mobile advection and storage measurement system will be set up. The aim of the comparison is to define the topographic and the meteorological conditions under which night advection and storage are important. This will allow the evaluation of the classical u* correction currently used during night periods and the proposition of a more precise method.


Activity 1.3 Soils

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 1.3.1Mapping soil types: Soils in the footprint of the Main Sites need to be mapped in a harmonised way. Based on existing data on carbon concentrations of soil types we will derive an initial estimate of soil carbon pools at Main Sites. This is a first step to link soil respiration, as measured by the flux towers, to carbon stocks and stock changes in soils.

Task 1.3.2 Soil sampling : The flux network offers the opportunity to compare and verify the carbon balance as measured by eddy covariance via measured changes in permanent biomass and in soil carbon stocks. Due to the heterogeneity of soils and due to the high carbon pools in soils the detection of soil carbon pool changes will be difficult, especially if the measuring period is short, as prescribed by the Kyoto Protocol. This will be tested for up to 12 Verification Sites. Based on the measured heterogeneity in forest soils and the expected carbon input a statistical power analysis shows that about 100 soil cores must be taken and analysed by horizon at the beginning and at the end of CarboEurope-IP. Whilst the first round of analyses will be completed in the five years of the project, the second round can only start re-sampling some of the 12 Verification Sites in order to leave enough time between the two sampling dates for detecting carbon stock changes.

Task 1.3.3 Carbon immobilisation in soils : The bulk C/N analysis can only give an insight into the mass balance without information about the carbon fraction or about the processes that result in carbon immobilisation. Any further analysis requires massive analytical work and cannot be carried out on a large number of samples. Therefore, a subset of 10 cores per soil sampling site will be taken for a detailed analysis of soil texture, the light fraction of C-particles as a measure of labile C, and analysis of 13C, 14C, 15N, C mineralisation and specific compounds that indicate change in carbon stocks in specific pools.


Activity 1.4 Forest

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 1.4.1 Harmonise data acquisition : The first step is to identify what is missing, and for those where data are available, to check consistency of the methodology. Visits will be made to all sites to collect structural and management data, and to ensure that NPP measurements are being made to a common protocol. Special attention will be paid to chronosequence sites, and to sites where typical types of disturbance are observed. New measurements of the decay rates of coarse woody debris will be required, as in the FP5 project CarboAge and Forcast it was evident that fluxes from this source remain important over many years.

Task 1.4.2 Model Parameterisation : Flux models developed in FP5 will be parameterised with the data obtained from the forest sites, and verified against the observed flux data. It will be possible from these models to estimate the impacts of climate warming, elevated CO2 and changes in management practices. The work plan in the period after the first 18 months will consist of refinement of the models; full runs of models with all features and sensitivity testing; meta-analysis of data on the decomposition of woody material, linking with the remote sensing community; linking with the private sector on Kyoto-related issues.


Activity 1.5 Cropland

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 1.5.1 Data consolidation : We will collate data on vegetation, development of leaf area, NPP and its components from cropland Main Sites. Where other, non-CO2 greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O) are also monitored, we will also collate these data and investigate emissions of these greenhouse gases under different types of management. We will also collate other auxiliary data on agricultural practices that impact upon soil organic carbon input (root biomass, organic manure, straw etc.) of cropland Main Sites for the present and past.

Task 1.5.2 Meta-analysis: Using the flux data from cropland sites, and the auxiliary data on management, physiology and other trace gases described above, we will use process-based models to simulate the seasonal, inter-annual and long-term variations in net greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) for croplands at site level. Such models, or derivatives of these, may be used for up-scaling. In addition, we will provide data for model parameterisation to other modelling groups for up-scaling to the European continent.


Activity 1.6 Grassland/wetlands

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

In the first project year, activities will be performed as part of the FP5 project Greengrass (EVK2-CT-2001-00105), running until 31/12/2004 .

Task 1.6.1 Standardised protocols for measurement of ecological (e.g. vegetation) parameters and of the components of NPP at the grassland/wetland sites: The relevant information on vegetation structure, site history, regime of management will be collected from all sites. Secondly a full protocol of measurements of NPP and its components will be designed. Data on vegetation, development of leaf area, NPP and its components including harvest and grazing will be collected by this activity and provided to the flux data base.

Task 1.6.2. Model parameterisation and validation: A mechanistic grassland ecosystem model (PASIM) developed under the FP5 project ‘Greengrass’ will be further adapted to predict the net exchange of greenhouse gases from permanent and short duration grasslands. In his first phase the PASIM model will be parameterised and evaluated against the data from the main grassland sites of the cluster network.

Task 1.6.3 Contribution to upscaling. A coupled version of the PASIM and ORCHIDEE first developed under the FP5 project ‘GreenGrass’ will be parametrised by region and grassland type in order to contribute to the bottom-up simulation of pan-European CO2 fluxes over grasslands.


Activity 2.1 Ground level station continuous measurements of CO 2 and 222 Rn and data management

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 2.1.1 The European network of CO2 stations: In situ hourly mean CO2 concentrations and meteorological data from 12 ground-level stations will be collected from 11 laboratories and delivered to the database in a harmonised format. Useful data products such as statistics on concentration variability, seasonal cycles, monthly means will be computed and placed in the database. Data and meta-data will be documented and updated every 6-month.

Task 2.1.2. Continuous sampling of 222Rn at the stations: 222Rn is a tracer of air masses under recent continental influences. It is widely used to validate vertical mixing (e.g. PBL depth) and synoptic transport in models. In Europe , a network of 6 222Rn stations already exists, but we need to integrate it with CO2 observations. Then, 222Rn recorded on a quasi continuous basis (every 1/2 hour) will be used to select CO2 data for regional representativity.

Task 2.1.3. Quantification of representativeness "errors": Near the ground, the variability in concentrations (e.g. diurnal cycle) is huge, because the air is to a large extent influenced by local sources and sinks. In order to filter the effect of local (few tens of km) variability from the regional signal, one needs to continuously monitor concentrations. In situ CO2 continuous data will be selected empirically into “local” and “regional” using meteorological information and back-trajectory analysis. Alternatively, we will test very-high resolution atmospheric transport models fitted with local emission maps to simulate the concentration variability around each site and model the data selection.

Task 2.1.4 Operation of data centre for atmosphere data

The data centre has already been established for the Aerocarb project in FP5. Tasks of the data manager comprise:


Activity 2.2 Tall towers continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, CO, 222Rn

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 2.2.1 The network of tall towers: We will continue to support the routine operations of 8 tall towers once the FP5 project Chiotto has stopped in 2005. In situ concentration and meteorological records from the tall towers will be delivered to the database in a harmonised format compatible with ground level stations data. One additional tall tower will be equipped in 2004 at La Muela to better constrain regional fluxes over the Iberian Peninsula . Two tall towers respectively near Toulouse and Bordeaux will be added to the network for one year during the Regional Experiment planned in the IP.

Task 2.2.2 Linking tall towers concentration profiles and local ecosystem fluxes: At tall towers where there are eddy covariance systems measuring NEE, this information will be used to screen out local influences and assess regional representativity of tall towers concentration time series. However, to establish a methodology for systematic upscaling of fluxes by combining tall towers concentration records, remote sensing information and nearby eddy covariance towers is beyond the scope of this task. At Norunda and Cabauw, we will simulate the vertical profiles of concentration along the masts and relate them to nearby eddy covariance data using 1-D or 3-D high resolution PBL-transport models. At all sites, the nocturnal accumulation of atmospheric species and 222Rn in shallow night-time boundary layers will offer the unique possibility to obtain independent estimate of night-time Ecosystem Respiration, using 222Rn of known sources to quantify unknown respiratory emissions of CO2.  


Activity 2.3 Flask air sampling for multiple species analysis

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 2.3.1. The European co-operative flask sampling network: The five European laboratories of this Workpackage have the capability to make high precision multiple species measurements in flask air samples. These laboratories are well experienced at working together within EU programmes for more than 10 years. Common work includes analytical developments, sharing of sampling devices and flasks, as well as frequent intercomparison exercises. We will collect weekly flask samples at up to 21 European locations for analysis of CO2, CH4, N2O, δ13C in CO2, δ18O in CO2, CO and at a subset of stations for O2:N2 as part of a co-operative effort involving Europe , USA and Australia . All flask data will be reported in a harmonised way to a Central Database.

Task 2.3.2. Multiple-species interpretation of the European carbon balance: Co-ordinated flask sampling at aircraft sites, tall towers and ground-level stations will provide multiple species information of unique value to separate air-sea exchange (using O 2:N 2), terrestrial fluxes ( 13C and 18O in CO 2), and fossil fuel emissions (CO, SF 6, NMHCs). The multiple species inferences will place strong independent constraints on bottom up estimates of the fluxes. Flask data of CH 4 and N 2O, in conjunction with tall towers records will enable us to infer the European sources of these gases. We will analyse δ 13 C-CO 2 and δ 18 O-CO 2 isotope records to determine the large scale time-varying isotopic fractionation of European ecosystems via the isotopic source signature of air added to or removed from the mean atmospheric signal.

Task 2.3.3. Development of innovative techniques: We will work on analytical developments for adding new species measurements with high-precision in flask air, focused on Ar:N 2 (tracer of transport over land); linear NMHC (tracers of air pollution), and δ 13 C in CH 4 (tracer to apportion CH 4 sources).


Activity 2.4 Vertical aircraft profiles of in situCO 2 and flask samples

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 2.4.1. The European network of aircraft sites (2004-2006)

We will continue the effort undertaken in 2000-2003 within FP5 to characterise the vertical gradients of CO 2 and other species in the lower troposphere using small aircraft. Two aircraft sites among the 6 operating now will however be stopped: Schauinsland (D) in 2005 and Thüringen (D) in 2004. We will continue to fly four small aircraft each 20 days in the interval 2004-2006 with flask sampling at 10 altitudes in order to obtain a multiple species dataset of 6-years long on an East-West transect across Europe at Hegyhatsal (H); Bialystok (PL); Orleans (FR); Griffin (UK). Those four aircraft sites are geographically co-located with tall towers. The aircraft flask results will be reported to the data base together with in situ information on sampling and on atmospheric structure (temperature and humidity). Another aircraft site will be installed in Northern Spain with national funding. An outline of the schedule is shown in Table 2.

Task 2.4.2. The enhanced European network of aircraft sites (2006-2008)

We will enhance the aircraft observations by taking in situ continuous profiles of CO 2. At Orleans (Fr) and Bialystok (PL) this is already the case with in situ CO being additionally measured at Orleans . We will install continuous CO 2 analysers at Griffin (UK) and Hegyhatsal by 2005 and fly them regularly after that. All in situ CO 2, temperature, humidity profiles will be reported to the database. In the interval 2006-2008, we will increase the sampling frequency to each 5 days, covering all possible synoptic weather conditions, with flasks sampled each 20 days. Such dramatic increase in aircraft soundings is essential to establish seasonal vertical and horizontal CO 2 gradients given the natural variability, and reduce uncertainties in regional budgets. Network design studies will be performed using inverse models in the Continental Integration Component of the IP in order to optimise the aircraft sampling strategy and to check on weather biases. An outline of the schedule is shown in Table 2.


Activity 2.5 Quality control of atmospheric measurements

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 2.5.1.Dynamic monitoring of inter-laboratory comparability of calibration scales

We will continue after FP5 projects stop in 2005 the frequent exchange every 2 months of flask samples filled with air of known concentration to assess differences in CO 2, CH4, 13C-CO 2, 18O-CO 2, N2O, and CO between the 4 laboratories with flask analytical capabilities. We will also develop an O 2/N 2 intercomparison strategy for 3 participating European laboratories, and establish links of these O 2/N 2 scales with the internationally recognised scales in the USA . Based on the experience gained in the ongoing FP5 projects, we will decide in 2006 whether high pressure or low pressure cylinders are most appropriate and cost-effective to carry out frequent laboratory intercomparisons. Intercomparison results will be reported to the database using web technology, and to the WMO-GAW international CO 2 Experts group.


Activity 2.6 Radiocarbon and CO analysis to quantify fossil fuel emissions

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 2.6.1. Determine the fossil fuel CO 2 component in Europe from 14 CO 2 measurements

We will continue high-precision quasi-continuous 14CO 2 sampling and analysis at the marine stations Mace Head and Izaña to accurately define the changing Atlantic 14 CO 2 background in mid northern latitudes. We will continue high precision (<3‰) 14 CO 2 measurements at the high altitude Alpine site Jungfraujoch, at the mountain site Schauinsland as well as at the coastal site Lutjewad for direct determination of the fossil fuel CO 2 component over Europe.

Task 2.6.2. Provide a calibration of CO as a proxy for fossil CO 2 at three urban stations

We will establish a set of three CO/fossil CO 2 ”calibration” stations in urban/industrial polluted environments representative of Western Europe and Eastern Europe . Those sites are Paris , Heidelberg and Krakow . In Paris , France where 90% of the electricity production is non-fossil, the CO/fossil CO 2 ratio is one of the highest in Western Europe because it reflects car traffic only. In Heidelberg Germany , we have both industrial emissions with a ”clean” combustion efficiency and car traffic from recent car fleet. In Krakow Poland , we expect industrial processes with higher CO/CO 2 emission ratio and car traffic from older car fleets. We will continue CO 2, CO and weekly-integrated 14CO 2 measurements at Heidelberg for calibration of CO as a proxy for fossil fuel CO 2. We will establish two new ”calibration sites” in urbanised/industrialised European regions ( Western Europe : Paris (48º30’N, 2º12’E), and Eastern Europe : Krakow , 50º23’N, 19º33’E) with weekly integrated precise (better than 4‰) 14CO 2 observations and parallel continuous CO 2 and CO observations.


Activity 2.7 Calibrated CO 2 concentration measurements at eddy-covariance towers

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 2.7.1. Feasibility study to calibrate atmospheric CO 2 eddy covariance towers

We will develop a simple instrumental “kit” to calibrate CO 2 on top of Eddy Covariance towers, and test whether the gas analysers used to measure profiles are applicable for atmospheric measurements with accuracy of ± 0.5 ppm. We will develop a methodology to use CO 2 records on short towers as surrogates of PBL concentrations, based on careful analysis of tall tower profile data at Hegyhatsal (Hu), Cabauw (NL), and Pallas (FIN) station where there are nearby eddy covariance towers.

Task 2.7.2. Pilot network of calibrated CO 2 at eddy covariance towers

We will implement CO 2 calibration on top of 10 eddy flux towers selected for flat terrain, as a joint activity with the Ecosystem Component of the IP.

Note on ground based remote sensing of atmospheric CO 2

(No funding requested from CarboEurope-IP)

We seek to complete the in situ Atmospheric Observing System outlined above by few remote sensing stations measuring CO 2 column integrals, as part of a separate project proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA). This network, should form the core of ground based calibration and validation activities for a new and powerful type of atmospheric CO 2 measurement, as expected from space-based remote sensing using existing sensors SCIAMACHY, AIRS and IASI, and from the near-future Orbital Carbon Observatory ( oco) mission dedicated to CO 2.


Activity 3.1 Experiment planning, data consolidation and data management

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Tasks 3.1.1. The main purpose of this task is to provide estimates of the carbon balance of the region using all available data and atmospheric model information. It will involve inventories of existing data (Obj 3.1.1), a new assessment at high resolution (2 km) of fossil fuel emissions of the area of the experiment.

Task 3.1.2: For the slow cycle, we will use the 8 km resolution downscaled weather information that is available at CNRM and will be extended for use in biogeochemical models. These models will be calibrated with flux data for the main land use types and then run for a 20-year period. The required input data on land use history and management is obtained in WP1. We intend to use the MesoNH model, which will be extended to carry CO 2 in the simulation.

Task 3.1.3: For the fast cycle we will use a data assimilation system at mesoscale that mirrors the system developed for the large scale (Camels and Continental Integration Component). We will mainly use the French Arome system developed at CNRM for this purpose and extend it to carry CO 2 in the assimilation procedure.

Task 3.1.4 Operation of data centre for atmosphere data

The data base of the regional experiment will primarily be based at CNRM. The Data Centre of the regional component receives, checks and stores the data of the component, delivers meta-data to the Central Database and creates links for data access with the Central Database. The regioanl component has assigned Dr. Noilhan of CNRM as Data Centre manager. It will contain links to the RECAB database and consolidated datasets of the RECAB campaigns. It will contain in an easily accessible form all the data the reanalysis of the RECAB campaigns, main driving climate, weather, soil and land use characteristics of the area of the Regional experiment, the 2 km resolution data of fossil fuel emission for the area and a geo-referenced set of forest growth and land use data since 1980. It will contain all the experimental data collected during the experiment (aircraft data, meteorological data and surface observations and remote sensing).


Activity 3.2 Surface flux and aircraft flux measurement

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 3.2.1Continuous tower-based measurements. Measurements are taken along the most dominant land cover types in the experimental domain (see detailed 18 month plan) by INRA and CNRM and Alterra additional during the intensive period.

Task 3.2.2 During the test campaign IBIMET and ISAFOM will fly their Sky arrow in the domain to test the feasibility and produce test data for modelling development as well as producing high resolution visible RS images of the area around tower location and selected transects.

Task 3.2.3 During the intensive campaigns Alterra will bring in an additional Sky Arrow for flux measurements.


Activity 3.3 Scalar concentration measurements from tall towers and aircraft

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 3.3.1 Tall tower-based scalar concentration measurements. The installation of the two towers is detailed in the 18 month workplan. At the inflow and outflow positions of the domain (near Toulouse and Bordeaux ) one to two towers equipped with high precision gas chromatographs will measure the concentrations of CO 2, and 14C (depending on national resources). CMDL NDIR-CO 2 sensors are built for this purpose. Implementation will start in 2005.

Task 3.3.2 Airborne flask sampling. A small commercial plane will sample the boundary layer structure for CO 2, 13C and CO for 3 to 5 days. Flask samples will be analysed at MPI-BGC. During the intensive campaign, flights are planned on 1 day every week to take 3 profiles at 5 levels in the boundary layer.

Task 3.3.3 Radio soundings. We will extend the routine WMO observations at Bordeaux during the test campaign and later during the full campaigns. We will also install UHF profile systems and RASS_Sodar systems at a location where they contribute most to our understanding of the heterogeneity of the area.


Activity 3.4 Modelling and integration

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 3.4.1 We will reanalyse the RECAB campaigns with mesoscale models (RAMS, Meso-NH) and apply down scaling techniques (inverse models), to guide both the development of the data assimilation system and the planning of the experiments. This will lead to a “proof of concept”.

Task 3.4.2 In the first 18 months we will initiate the development of this regional CDAS in parallel with effort in CAMELS. For the slow cycle, we will use the 8 km resolution downscaled weather information that is available at CNRM, which will be extended for use in biogeochemical models. These models will be calibrated with flux data for the main land use types and then run for a 20-year period. The required input data on land use history and management is obtained in WP1. The models we intend to use, comprise Orchid, LPJ, ISBA-A-g s. We will concentrate on setting up uniform calibration and model procedures in the first 18 months, 20 year runs will be ready towards month 48.

Task 3.4.3 For the fast cycle we will use a data assimilation system at mesoscale that mirrors the system developed for the large scale (Camels and Continental Integration Component). We will mainly use the French Arome system and Meso-NH developed at CNRM for this purpose and extend it to carry CO 2 in the assimilation procedure. This will be used finally to separate biospheric from anthropogenic sources.


Activity 4.1 Auxiliary Datasets and Remote Sensing

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 4.1.1: Primary datasets to be compiled as drivers for the TEMs

Task 4.1.2: Surface biophysical products from various spaceborne instruments

Task 4.1.3: Compilation of minor and background carbon fluxes

Common description of tasks:

The activity aims at compiling European continental datasets required for driving and constraining the different modelling approaches used within the integration component. Datasets of various types and from multiple sources will be checked for consistency and completeness, will be georeferenced and interpolated to a common spatial scale denominator, the EUROGRID. The activity will build on resources developed in FP5 projects CARBODATA and CARBOEUROPE-GHG, as well as on data products available from the CEE focus of GTOS/TCO and from UNECE programmes (ICP, EMEP). It will follow the standards and protocols developed within the INSPIRE initiative (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe ) of the European Commission. Major data sets will be compiled through interfacing to and processing of European wide data available / elaborated in different JRC-Actions (e.g., ARSM, MARS, ESDI, INFOREST, AGRIENV, MOSES/PRISM, TEM, MONMAR, TRADEOFF) and in other European services like EEA and EUROSTAT.

We will create a database of a wide range of thematic geographical information layers, to be organised in the framework of the distributed database of the IP through directly linked meta-information to and data exchange protocols.


Activity 4.2 Land Carbon Inventories

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Work will be performed along the 4 main tasks:

Task 4.2.1: Compilation of a European scale high-resolution gridded representation of forest inventory data for use in the inverse (activity 4.3) bottom-up (activity 4.4) and data assimilation modelling (activity 4.5).

Task 4.2.2: A co-operation framework will be developed between JRC and national soil carbon monitoring experts. The network will use COST E21 (Contribution of Forests and Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Effects) as well as the CarboInvent soil partners as the basis to extend the study domain into the eastern European countries.

Task 4.2.3: Development and application of suitable methods and algorithms for the integration of georeferenced data (land carbon inventories) by using neural networks and fuzzy techniques..

Task 4.2.4: A study of methods for “Bottom Up” calculation of carbon budgets on plot level (georeferenced) for Kyoto Protocol Art. 3.3. and 3.4 following the acceptance of IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF.


Activity 4.3 Determination of the Surface Carbon Balance by Inverse Atmospheric Modelling

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 4.3.1: Network representativity and optimization studies of atmospheric observations.

Task 4.3.2: Multi-species simulations for different transport models in a forward mode (prior to a multi-species inversion). Simulated isotopic composition of CO2 ( 14C, 13C, and 18O) and O 2/N 2 ratio will be compared at ground station as well as CO and CH 4 concentrations using existing chemical modules in the atmospheric models.

Task 4.3.3: European single- and multi-species inversions and critical analysis of flux estimates and their uncertainties at high spatial and temporal resolution.

Common description of tasks:

Work relating to this activity will be performed in several iterations, each involving the following steps:

The first iteration is expected to take about 18 months. It will employ various subsets of the current and planned atmospheric observation sites (ground sites, towers and aircraft profiles) of the Atmosphere Component in order to assess the resolving power of the respective observational networks. Subsequent iterations will employ increased model resolution, more extended inversion periods and newly obtained observations from the observational program of the Atmosphere Component.


Activity 4.4 Bottom-up determination of the surface carbon balance

Objectives (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 4.4.1: Neural network modelling with NETWORK NEE to estimate NEE fluxes for the forest sector.

Task 4.4.2: H igh resolution process-based stand modelling for selected cells of the Eurogrid using the PROXEL NEE (as well as PROXEL derived models for radiation use efficiency – RUE - and PROXEL parameterized BEPS).

Task 4.4.3: TEM simulations on the Eurogrid spatial scale over the entire European continent. These models include LPJ, ORCHIDEE, BETHY, Biome-BGC, and Triffid. >> webpage

Common description of tasks:

Work to be performed includes the implementation, evaluation, optimization and application of georeferenced surface flux models over the European domain, based on statistical methods (e.g. Neural networks) or based on ecosystem process understanding. These models will be used to (a) bridge the spatial gap between point measurements at individual flux sites and the spatial scale of individual Eurogrid grid cells, and (b) scale up over the entire continent in order to determine the European carbon balance and its constituent mechanisms. Simulations (a) will be relatively short term using high resolution (1km 2) driver data (e.g. from remote sensing), while the simulations on the Eurogrid (b) will include the full history of land use and land management changes, as well as climate variations over the last 100-200 years.

Driver datasets will consist of GIS based statistical information (e.g. topography, land use, land use history, etc.), meteorology (from ECMWF analyses) and remote sensing data (e.g. fPAR). The models will be either calibrated or evaluated at the individual flux tower sites. A second model evaluation will be performed by comparison of the model results with the carbon inventory datasets obtained in Activity 4.2.

The European scale flux maps determined with these bottom-up model simulations will be critically intercompared in order to assess model uncertainty. The flux estimates will also be compared with the flux estimates from the top-down inversion approach (Activity 4.3), thereby taking into account the auxiliary carbon fluxes not explicitly represented in the surface flux models. By means of factorial simulations turning on or off individual drivers the effects and contributions of particular forcing factors will be studied.


Activity 4.5 Development of a carbon data assimilation system for Europe

Objective (5 yr plan)

Outline of work plan

Task 4.5.1: Model validation and Uncertainty Analysis

Will utilise local flux and inventory data to improve process representation in TEMs, and to define Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the key internal model parameters. Building on results of the Camels FP5 project, results of the carbon data assimilation system (CDAS) will be critically assessed and compared to the direct bottom-up and top-down estimates of surface fluxes. Based on this assessment an “optimal” map of the carbon fluxes over the European domain, including their temporal variability and an assessment of its uncertainty will be performed. The assessment will also include a critical evaluation and intercomparison of methods developed in similar efforts in the US (as part of the North American Carbon Plan), in Australia and in the Global Carbon Project of the IGBP.

Task 4.5.2: Development and application of a Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System

The Camels FP5 project will upon its completion in 2004 provide a prototype of a which will allow the consistent inclusion of all carbon data streams (atmospheric observations, surface flux measurements and inventory data), together with meteorological information and remote sensing data sets in order to determine the spatio-temporal surface carbon flux fields. Based on this prototype in CarboEurope more refined versions will be constructed (higher spatial and temporal resolution, improved surface model, inclusion of high density of observations over the European domain) and applied on the Eurogrid for the time period 1998-2006. Will assemble all information on land-biosphere processes and observational datastreams into a common Carbon Data Assimilation framework (CDAS), which can estimate carbon sources and sinks over land at a spatial resolution of 50km and a temporal resolution of 1 day.

The assessment will provide the scientific basis for the final synthesis report on the carbon balance of Europe as determined by the observing system established in the CarboEurope IP.


updated by Yvonne Hofmann,